The initial development of online learning technology began at scale with the development of the learning management system (LMS) in the mid-1990s. These systems were modeled on distance education resources such as programmed texts and course workbooks. These were designed originally by organizations such as the Open University, in Britain, and Canada’s Athabasca University. Online courses were developed according to a protocol that developed over 20 years of experience. These combined learning materials, activities and interaction, and assessments.